Non-defining relative clause Non-defining relative clauses are placed after nouns which are definite already. The adjective clause which does not define the noun before it but gives additional information about the noun is called the non-defining relative clause.
Despite and Inspite are used to express the concept of contrast. They can be used interchangeably. they mean the same as ‘although, though or even though’. But althoughthough and even though are subordinate conjunctions.
+ noun phrase
Despite his physical handicap he is a successful business man.
+ subject + verb + (complement)
Although he is physically handicapped, he is a successful business man.
II. Hope and Wish
These two verbs, while they are similar in meaning, are not all the same grammatically. The verb ‘hope’ is used to indicate something that possibly happened or will possibly happen. The verb wish is used to indicate something that definitely did not happen or definitely will not happen.
We hope that they will visit.
We hope that they visited yesterday.
We wish that they could come.
Wish is also used to express unreal condition.
I wish I were a singer.
If I were a bird I would fly.
If I were you I would not attend this meeting.
Past unreal condition
If you had been here last night, you would have seen the film.
She wishes that she could have been here earlier.
We wish that you had been at Paris last night.
In these sentences the word ‘that’ is optional.
We wish that you could come to the party tonight.
She wishes that she were coming with us.
I wish I had enough time to finish the proof correction.
III Some Adverbs
hardly, barely, scarcely, seldom, rarely, never. These words which are similar in meaning, negative or restrictive ideas.
I have hardly any money.
Hardly had he finished his work when somebody knocked at the door.
We hardly go to movies.
‘Barely’ is often used with adjectives such as enough and sufficient.
These people have barely enough to eat.
After the loss in business he has barely enough to support himself.
Kuwait lies barely 48 km from the Iranian coast.
If any of these adverbs occur at the beginning of a sentence, the subject must follow the verb as in a question:
Rarely and seldom are broad negatives
Rarely do we come across such good people.
Seldom have I seen such beautiful flowers.
IV. Conditional sentences (hypothetical and impossible)
In these conditional sentences past perfect will be followed by perfect conditional.
1. If you had bought a car a year ago (Past Perfect) it would have cost you much less than now. (Perfect Conditional)
2. Had you bought a car a year ago (Past Perfect inverted) it would have cost you much less than now. (Perfect Conditional)
V. Had better
The meaning of had better (I’d better) is similar to should.
1. I’d better do something. I should do something (or) it is advisable for me to do something. If I do not do this, something bad might happen.
2. I have to meet Supria now, I had better go now.