Non-defining relative clause Non-defining relative clauses are placed after nouns which are definite already. The adjective clause which does not define the noun before it but gives additional information about the noun is called the non-defining relative clause.
The participle has two forms : present participle, and past participle. Present participle is one of the three forms of non-finite vierbs. It is formed by adding ing with a verb. Past participle is one of the non finite verb forms.
(a) When one subject does 2 actions
The first action -> participle
The second action -> verb
He ran fast (1st action). He sweated (2nd action)
Running fast (participle), he sweated (verb)
(b) In the case of 2 subjects
It was a rainy day (1st action). We stayed indoors
It, being a rainy day, we stayed indoors
(a) ing :
Father wore his shoes (1st verb). He went for a walk (2nd verb)
Wearing his shoes (participle), Father went for a walk (verb)
(b) being :
being replaces ‘to be’ forms (i.e.) am, is , are, was, were.
He was smart. He solved the problem
Being smart (participle), he solved the problem (verb)
(b) Having :
having been / verb having been -> had been having +verb -> had + verb