Last Updated : 01 Mar 2014

SENTENCE PATTERN DEFINITION

There are five important components in a sentence.

e.g.

Subject (S)Verb (V)Object (O)
Complement (C)Adverbial (A)

 

1. SUBJECT (S)

Definition :
To get ‘S’ ask the quesiton ‘Who?’ before the verb.

e.g.

Nancy danced well(Here “Nancy” - Subject)
The child broke the glass(Here “The child” - Subject)
Subject (S)consists of nouns or pronouns
occurs before a verb

 

2. VERB (V)

Definition :
In every sentence the most important word is the verb. A verb shows action or activity or work done.

e.g.

He is a doctor(“Be” form verb)
Jems wrote a letter(Main verb)
The baby is crying(auxiliary verb + Main verb)
Verb (V)consists of (a) auxiliaries
(b) finite verbs
(a) Auxiliaries

e.g.

am, is, are ,was, were
has, have, had
does, do, did
Modals : can, could; will, would; shall, should; may, might; must
Semi-modals / Quasi Modals : dare to; need to; used to; ought to
(b) Finte verbs - denote action

e.g.

talk, sing, write, make, dance, play, cook, leave, teach, sleep
- verbs occur after the subject
- vebs occur before the object

3. OBJECT (O)

Definition :
To get the object ‘O’ ask the question ‘What’ or ‘Whome’. ‘What’ is for things and ‘Whome’ is for persons. Persons may be nouns or pronouns.

e.g.

He bought a pen(a pen = Object)
He handles the computer(computer = Object)
I saw him(him = Object)

Object (O) - consists of nouns or noun phrases or noun clauses

(a) Do - direct object
- answers the question ‘what’

e.g.

SVO (what)
I likesanimals
(b) IO - indirect object
- answers the question ‘whom’

e.g.

SVIO (whom)DO
I gaveRosya pen

4. COMPLEMENT (C)

Definition :
The words required to complete the meaning of a sentence are called Complement of the sentence.

e.g.

SVC
He isa dentist
She becamea journalist
It grewdark

Complement (C) - from the word ‘complete’

- completes the meaning in the sentence
- wihtout it the, meaning is incomplete
- wihtout it the, meaning changes
occurs in two pattern. (i) S V C pattern. (ii) S V O C pattern
(i) In S V C pattern, the complement C
- complements the subjects
- tells about the subject
- wihtout it the, meaning changes
- without C, the sentence is incomplete or the sentence changes its meaning
- use to be forms, grew, became, seems for verb

e.g.

SVC
They areplayers
She wasangry
It seemsabsurd
(ii) In S V O C pattern
- the complement tells about the object
- the complement and object are of the same person or thing

e.g.

SVOC
They calledDavida genius
I foundhercrying
They electedMichleleader

Types of Complement

1. Subject Complement
Definition :
The complement which expresses the quality or identity or condition of the subject is called Subject Complement.

e.g.

She is a doctorShe looks sad
2. Object Complement
Definition :
The complement which expresses the quality or identity or condition of an object is called Object Complement.

e.g.

They made her angry She called him a liar

Adjunct or Adverbial

Definition :
To get ‘A’ ask the question why, when, where or how.

The use of adverbial is optional whereas complement is essential. It has adverb phrase, adverbial clause, noun-phrase and prepositional phrase.

e.g.

Why? (reason)When? (Time)Where? (Place)How? (Manner)
due to coldnow, laterhere, thereby bus / cycle
through floodsafter 2 yearsevery wherethrough efforts
under compulsionwhen youngin the skyby mixing
carefullyin the morningat homeby hard work

Adjunct - A - answers the questions where? when? how? why?
- without A, any change in the meaning of the sentence

Examples of Adjuncts in sentences

e.g.

SVA
She Comesevery day
-Sithere

 

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